Postings on books mainly non-fictiona few films and matters of interest by Lorenzo from Oz aka Downunder Thursday, September 30, Racism: A Short History 1 George M.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists generally agree that it came to the English language from Middle Frenchbut there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages, generally.
A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, beginning, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Today, most biologistsanthropologistsand sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and lower-order criteria, such as geographyethnicity or a history of endogamy though the use of some basic measurements like intelligence or physical capacity is frowned upon.
It has been argued in many articles that there is little evidence in human genome research indicating that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in a genetic classification of humans. Additionally, the Oxford English Dictionary records racism as a synonym of racialism: By the end of World War IIracism had acquired the same supremacist connotations formerly associated with racialism: The term "race hatred" had also been used by sociologist Frederick Hertz in the late s.
As its history indicates, popular use of the word racism is relatively recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazismwhich saw "race" as a naturally given political unit, which also helped demonize the concept.
Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms to emphasize its many different forms that do not easily fall under a single definition and that different forms have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups; second, a set of ideas an ideology about racial differences; and, third, discriminatory actions practices.
The UDHR recognizes that if people are to be treated with dignity, they require economic rightssocial rights including educationand the rights to cultural and political participation and civil liberty.
It further states that everyone is entitled to these rights "without distinction of any kind, such as race, coloursexlanguagereligionpolitical or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
According to the UN International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination the term "racial discrimination" shall mean any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference based on race, colour, descentor national or ethnic origin that has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.
They are born equal in dignity and rights and all form an integral part of humanity. Sociology of race and ethnic relations Sociologistsin general, restrict mentions of "race" as being a social construct. This means that, though the concepts of race and racism are based in observable biological characteristics, any conclusions drawn about race on the basis of those observations are said to be controlled by cultural ideologies.
Racism, as an ideology, exists in a society at both the individual and the institutional level. While much of the research and work on racism in the last half-century or so has concentrated on "white racism" in the Western world, historical accounts of race-based social practices can be found across the globe.
In studies of these majority white societies, the aggregate of material and cultural advantages is usually termed " white privilege ". Race and race relations are prominent areas of study in sociology and economics. Much of the sociological literature focuses on white racism. Some of the earliest sociological works on racism were penned by sociologist W.
Du Bois wrote, "The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line. Racial ideologies and racial identity affect individuals' perception of race and discrimination. Racial centrality the extent to which a culture recognizes individuals' racial identity appears to affect the degree of discrimination African American young adults perceive whereas racial ideology may buffer the detrimental emotional effects of that discrimination.
The "newer" more hidden and less easily detectable forms of racism—which can be considered as embedded in social processes and structures—are more difficult to explore as well as challenge. It has been suggested that, while in many countries overt or explicit racism has become increasingly taboo, even in those who display egalitarian explicit attitudes, an implicit or aversive racism is still maintained subconsciously.
Implicit attitudes are evaluations that occur without conscious awareness towards an attitude object or the self. These evaluations are generally either favorable or unfavorable.
They come about from various influences in the individual experience. In thinking about crime, for example, social psychologist Jennifer L. Eberhardt of Stanford University holds that, "blackness is so associated with crime you're ready to pick out these crime objects.
Thus, racist thoughts and actions can arise from stereotypes and fears of which we are not aware. Discourse analysis seeks to reveal the meaning of race and the actions of racists through careful study of the ways these factors of human society are described and discussed in various written and oral works.
Van Dijkfor example, examines the different ways in which descriptions of racism and racist actions are depicted by perpetrators of such actions and their victims.
Du Bois, represents early African-American literature that describes the author's experience of racism traveling in the South as an African American.
Much American fictional literature has focused on issues of racism and the black "racial experience" in the US, including those written by whites such as Uncle Tom's CabinTo Kill a Mockingbirdand Imitation of Lifeor even the non-fiction Black Like Me.
These books, and others like them, feed into what has been called the " white savior narrative in film ", in which the heroes and heroines are white even though the story is about things that happen to black characters.
Textual analysis of such writings can contrast sharply with black authors' descriptions of African Americans and their experiences in US society. African American writers have been sometimes portrayed in African-American studies as retreating from racial issues when they write about " whiteness ", while others identify this as an African American literary tradition called "the literature of white estrangement", part of a multipronged approach to challenge and dismantle white supremacy in the US.
In popular usage, as in some academic usage, little distinction is made between "racism" and " ethnocentrism ".Racism in Maycomb was the norm.
It is dieses not too different from a dog with rabies. It is dieses not too different from a dog with rabies. In Harper Lee’s town of Maycomb in To Kill A Mockingbird, any attempt to deviate from that racist form of thinking was shunned, and it was as well as branded on your forehead that you were a `nigger-lover'.
An essay on Philippines Racism and the norm of thinking that racists have. Includes examples of typical Filipino racism and stereotyping.
gh evidences to back up my opinions. Apr 29, · What is overt racism? Follow. 10 answers Report Abuse. Non-overt racism would be white Wendy THINKING she's better than black Barbara just because of the color of her skin.
The KKK are overt racists. Subtle racism is harder to define, since people tend to read what they want to think into a situation. parental unit · 1 Status: Resolved. Discourse analysis seeks to reveal the meaning of race and the actions of racists through careful study of the ways in which these factors of human society are described Notions of race and racism have often played central roles in Some research suggests that ethnocentric thinking may have actually contributed to the.
Some scholars argue that in the US earlier violent and aggressive forms of racism have evolved into a more subtle form of prejudice in the late 20th century. Some research suggests that ethnocentric thinking may have actually contributed to the development of cooperation.
Racism without Racists: Color-blind Racism and the Persistence of. Institutional racism (also known as structural racism, state racism or systemic racism) is racial discrimination by governments, corporations, religions, or educational institutions or other large organizations with the power to influence the lives of many individuals.